Hashimoto's Disease:
Research & Resource

These are several links to web sites I have found to contain useful and informative material on Hashimoto's thyroiditis, hypothyroidism as well as other thyroid disease. Some of the sites provide specific medical facts and some research information. You will be able to gather a lot of good information on any thyroid disease.

Merck Manual Thyroid Disease general overview and links to all the conditions of the thyroid.

Merck ManualThyroiditis Inflammation of the thyroid. Go to bottom of page to read about Hashimoto's.

New York Thyroid Center "dedicated to providing superior medical care and education for patients with thyroid disease. Our members research causes and treatments, as well as develop prevention programs for thyroid and parathyroid diseases. Founded by the esteemed pioneer in thyroid and parathyroid surgery, Dr. Paul LoGerfo, the Center evolved from a long standing thyroid clinic, which was established at Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center more than 60 years ago. Members of this clinic and subsequently the Center include endocrinologists, surgeons, radiologists, pathologists, and ophthalmologists who are leaders in the classification, treatment and identification of thyroid and parathyroid disorders. Their efforts also extend to the medical community so that the standard of care for all thyroid and parathyroid patients may be improved worldwide. Although our Center is based in New York, we provide a referral service to thyroid and parathyroid specialists across the United States."

Thyroiditis Acute (Suppurative) Thyroiditis,Riedel's Thyroiditis: (Riedel's Struma), Subacute Thyroiditis (de Quervain's Syndrome), Subacute Thyroiditis, Silent (Painless/Thyrotoxic Lymphocytic) Thyroiditis, Postpartum thyroiditis, Chronic Lymphocytic Thyroiditis: Hashimoto's, "Hashitoxicosis: Hashimoto's thyroiditis can also manifest as an acute mild to moderate hyperthyroidism in 3-5% of cases. Hashitoxicosis refers to the presence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis PLUS hyperthyroidism. These patients have high antibody titers as seen in Grave's disease (in fact, this disorder probably represents superimposed Grave's on Hashimoto's). The antigen-antibody reaction leads to relatively rapid follicular cell damage and excess hormone release into the circulation [1]. RAIU is normal or elevated. The hyperthyroidism is typically self-limited and resolves spontaneously over a period of weeks to several months" (This is what I experienced. My hyperthyroid symptoms lasted maybe a couple of months.)

5 Types of Thyroiditis Hashimoto's Thyroiditis, Painful Thyroiditis, Painless Thyroiditis, Reidel's Thyroiditis, Acute Suppurative Thyroiditis.

Nonneoplastic Diseases of the Thyroid Gland "This material was prepared by resident physicians in partial fulfillment of educational requirements established for the Postgraduate Training Program of the UTMB Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery..." It contains a lot of information.

JAMA (Journal of the American Medical Association) Treatment guidelines for patients with hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism Gives detailed information on diagnosing and treating hypo and hyperthyroidism. This is very useful information and explain some things you may have questions about.

AACE Clinical Practice Guidelines for Evaluation and Treatment of Hyperthyroidism and Hypothyroidism Site also gives diagnostic and treatment guidelines. people with chronic thyroiditis tend to have a higher incidence of other associated autoimmune diseases such as vitiligo, rheumatoid arthritis, Addison's disease, diabetes mellitus, and pernicious anemia. These are conditions which you and your physician should monitor for.

Synthroid Website Information on thyroid disease & synthroid.

Symptoms of hypothyroidism These includes
Decreased ventricular contractility
Increased diastolic blood pressure
Decreased heart rate

Central Nervous
Decreased concentration
General lack of interest

Decreased GI motility

Muscle stiffness, cramps, overt pain, weakness, myalgias
Slow muscle-stretch reflexes, muscle enlargement, atrophy
Joint pain and stiffness

Fluid retention and edema
Decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR)

Decreased fertility
Elevated triglycerides
Increased LDL cholesterol

Skin and Hair

Thickening and dryness of skin
Dry, coarse hair
Loss of scalp hair and/or lateral eyebrow hair

Ocular System
Increased intraocular pressure

These symptoms apparently still continue and varies from day to day even with treatment but does occur to a lesser degree than if not treated. I personally think the body normally varies in the thyroid hormone out put to accommodate the body's needs and adjusting to environmental factors. However on a set dose of thyroid hormones then when the body needs a little more T4 or T3 you may have some symptoms of hypothyroidism but when the body needs a little less then you experience some signs of hyperthyroidism. This is my theory which helps me to accept minor symptoms but as far as I know there is no scientific data or any research on this. I'm not sure at this point if the T3, T4, TSH and other indications of the body's needs can be measured or monitored on a continuous basis. Any researchers are welcome to investigate this theory if desired.

Hashimoto's vs. Hypothyroidism: What's the Difference? "Hashimoto's disease, sometimes known as Hashimoto's thyroiditis, autoimmune thyroiditis, or chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, is an autoimmune disease. In Hashimoto's, antibodies are reacting against proteins in the thyroid, causing gradual destruction of the gland itself, and its ability to produce the thyroid hormones the body needs.

Usually, however, Hashimoto's involves a slow but steady destruction of the gland that eventually results in the thyroid's inability to produce sufficient thyroid hormone -- the condition known as hypothyroidism. Along the way, however, there can be periods where the thyroid sputters back to life, even causing temporary hyperthyroidism, then a return to hypothyroidism. This cycling back and forth between hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism is characteristic of Hashimoto's disease.

Ultimately, however, the thyroid slowly becomes less able to function, and when hypothyroidism itself can be measured by blood tests, many practitioners will finally treat with thyroid hormone replacement drugs.

Many people with Hashimoto's disease end up hypothyroid, the situation where the thyroid is either underactive or totally unable to function. Hashimoto's disease is actually the leading cause of hypothyroidism."

Autoimmune disorders "Immune system disorders occur when the immune response is inappropriate, excessive, or lacking. Autoimmune disorders develop when the immune system destroys normal body tissues. This is caused by a hypersensitivity reaction similar to allergies, where the immune system reacts to a substance that it normally would ignore. In allergies, the immune system reacts to an external substance that would normally be harmless. With autoimmune disorders, the immune system reacts to normal "self" body tissues.

Normally, the immune system is capable of differentiating "self" from "non-self" tissue. Some immune system cells (lymphocytes) become sensitized against "self" tissue cells, but these cells are usually controlled (suppressed) by other lymphocytes. Autoimmune disorders occur when the normal control process is disrupted. They may also occur if normal body tissue is altered so that it is no longer recognized as "self." The mechanisms that cause disrupted control or tissue changes are not known. One theory holds that various microorganisms and drugs may trigger some of these changes, particularly in people with a genetic predisposition to an autoimmune disorder."

Could Antibiotics Cure Your Hashimoto's Disease: Foodborne Bacteria May Be a Cause of Hashimoto's Disease "An interesting research study out of Greece, and reported on in the journal Clinical Microbiology & Infection has reported that there is strong evidence of some sort of caustive relationship between the bacteria known as Yersinia enterocolitica infection, and Hashimoto's thyroiditis."

MediClim launched in January by a California doctor and his meteorologist friend and colleague Denis Bourque, e-mails its members daily health alerts, warning when five medical conditions are likely to worsen based on current weather. Conditions include migraines, asthma, arthritis, diabetes and heart disease.

Health Directory Conditions & Diseases Thyroiditis Web Site Links

Thyroiditis Inflammation of the Thyroid Gland "Thyroiditis is an inflammation (not an infection) of the thyroid gland. Several types of thyroiditis exist and the treatment is different for each.

Hashimoto's Thyroiditis. Hashimoto's Thyroiditis (also called autoimmune or chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis) is the most common type of thyroiditis. It is named after the Japanese physician, Hakaru Hashimoto, that first described it in 1912. The thyroid gland is always enlarged, although only one side may be enlarged enough to feel. During the course of this disease, the cells of the thyroid becomes inefficient in converting iodine into thyroid hormone and "compensates" by enlarging. The radioactive iodine uptake may be paradoxically high while the patient is hypothyroid because the gland retains the ability to take-up or "trap" iodine even after it has lost its ability to produce thyroid hormone. As the disease progresses, the TSH increases since the pituitary is trying to induce the thyroid to make more hormone, the T4 falls since the thyroid can't make it, and the patient becomes hypothyroid. The sequence of events can occur over a relatively short span of a few weeks or may take several years.
Treatment is to start thyroid hormone replacement. This prevents or corrects the hypothyroidism and it also generally keeps the gland from getting larger.
In most cases the thyroid gland will decrease in size once thyroid hormone replacement is started.
Thyroid antibodies are present in 95% of patients with Hashimoto's Thyroiditis and serve as a useful "marker" in identifying the disease without thyroid biopsy or surgery.
Thyroid antibodies may remain for years after the disease has been adequately treated and the patient is on thyroid hormone replacement.

De Quervain's Thyroiditis. De Quervain's Thyroiditis (also called subacute or granulomatous thyroiditis) was first described in 1904 and is much less common than Hashimoto's Thyroiditis. The thyroid gland generally swells rapidly and is very painful and tender. The gland discharges thyroid hormone into the blood and the patients become hyperthyroid; however the gland quits taking up iodine (radioactive iodine uptake is very low) and the hyperthyroidism generally resolves over the next several weeks.
Patients frequently become ill with fever and prefer to be in bed.
Thyroid antibodies are not present in the blood, but the sedimentation rate, which measures inflammation, is very high.
Although this type of thyroiditis resembles an infection within the thyroid gland, no infectious agent has ever been identified and antibiotics are of no use.
Treatment is usually bed rest and aspirin to reduce inflammation.
Occasionally cortisone (steroids) (to reduce inflammation) and thyroid hormone (to "rest" the thyroid gland) may be used in prolonged cases.
Nearly all patients recover and the thyroid gland returns to normal after several weeks or months.
A few patients will become hypothyroid once the inflammation settles down and therefore will need to stay on thyroid hormone replacement indefinitely.
Recurrences are uncommon.

Silent Thyroiditis. Silent Thyroiditis is the third and least common type of thyroiditis. It was not recognized until the 1970's although it probably existed and was treated as Graves' Disease before that. This type of thyroiditis resembles in part Hashimoto's Thyroiditis and in part De Quervain's Thyroiditis. The blood thyroid test are high and the radioactive iodine uptake is low (like De Quervain's Thyroiditis), but there is no pain and needle biopsy resembles Hashimoto's Thyroiditis. The majority of patients have been young women following pregnancy. The disease usually needs no treatment and 80% of patients show complete recovery and return of the thyroid gland to normal after three months. Symptoms are similar to Graves' Disease except milder. The thyroid gland is only slightly enlarged and exophthalmos (development of "bug eyes") does not occur. Treatment is usually bed rest with beta blockers to control palpitations (drugs to prevent rapid heart rates). Radioactive iodine, surgery, or antithyroid medication is never needed. A few patients have become permanently hypothyroid and needed to be placed on thyroid hormone.

Thyroid Deficiency Causes of hypothyroidism: "Hashimoto's thyroiditis is the most common form of hypothyroidism, presenting with an enlarged thyroid gland that becomes nonfunctional, with the active parts of the gland deteriorating after several years. Hashimoto's thyroiditis is a chronic inflammation of the thyroid gland thought to be caused by autoimmune factors. Other forms of autoimmune disease are common, including pernicious anemia, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and Sjögren's syndrome. Schmidt's syndrome refers to hypothyroidism with other endocrine disorders, including Addison's disease (adrenal insufficiency), hypoparathyroidism, and diabetes mellitus, all of which may be autoimmune in nature.

Euthyroid sick syndrome is hypothyroidism, associated with a severe systemic illness, that causes decreased peripheral conversion of T4 to T3, an increased conversion of T3 to the inactive reverse T3, and decreased binding of thyroid hormones. Conditions commonly associated with this syndrome include fasting, starvation, protein-calorie malnutrition, general surgical trauma, myocardial infarction, chronic renal failure, diabetic ketoacidosis, anorexia nervosa, cirrhosis, thermal injury, and sepsis. Once the underlying cause is treated, the condition is usually resolved.

Treatment for hyperthyroidism, which includes administering radioactive iodine and surgical removal of the thyroid gland, may also result in hypothyroidism.

In many undeveloped countries, where there is a chronic lack of iodine in the diet, goitrous hypothyroidism resulting from an underactive thyroid gland is common. Hypothyroidism resulting from a lack of dietary iodine has disappeared in the United States.

Drugs that may produce hypothyroidism as an adverse reaction include amiodarone (Cordarone), colchicine (Colsalide), fluoxetine (Prozac), interferon-alfa (Alferon N, Intron A, Roferon A), lithium (Eskalith, Lithobid), methimazole (Tapazole), potassium iodide, KI (Pima, SSKI), and propylthiouracil."

THYROID DISEASE MANAGER Site offers up-to-date analysis of thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidism, thyroid nodules and cancer, thyroiditis, and all aspects of human thyroid disease and thyroid physiology.

The American Foundation of Thyroid Patients Organization was founded by thyroid patients. Provides information on thyroid disease as well as information of interest to thyroid patients.

Thyroid Info Mary Shomon, patient advocate, site on thyroid disease. Site includes news, support and other information of interest to people with thyroid disease. Site also offers newsletter which contains interesting informations such as "Researchers have found that in some patients, the presenting symptom of Hashimoto's thyroiditis can be knee pain. In this case, early diagnosis and treatment of Hashimoto's and hypothyroidism may be able to prevent polyarthritis associated with hypothyroidism.
Source: Gillan, MM et. al. "Hashimoto's thyroiditis presenting as bilateral knee arthropathy," J Okla State Med Assoc 2002

Health Scout You can look up the latest news pertaining to thyroid disease as well as to other diseases.

hashimoto's hypothyroidism
Prefer to order a book on thyroid disease? You can search Amazon to purchase a book if you'ld like or you can keep scrolling down to check out all the other links.

Endocrinology Gateway "expertly selected content from the leading publications in endocrinology and metabolism, including Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism, Hormones and Behavior, General and Comparative Endocrinology, Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, Peptides, Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, and the Academic Press & Elsevier Books and Major Reference Works portfolios."

Doctor's Guide artical entitled Adding Natural Hormone Boosts Brain Function in Hypothyroidism. The artical discusses the research done on 33 hypothyroidism patients in Lithuania. The researchers divided the patients in 2 random groups. Half were given their usual dose of T4 and the other half were given a reduced dose of T4 combined with T3. They did this for 5 weeks then reversed the doses of the 2 groups. After each regimen the researchers performed biochemical, physiologic and psychological tests on the patients. They found there wasn't much difference on the metabolic effects or general organs but did find the big difference related to the psychological testing. 31 of the patients did better on memory, mood, concentration, depression, energy and other characteristics on the combination doses of T3 & T4. They also reported 20 of the patients preferred the combined doses while only 2 preferred T4 alone. The remaining 11 had no preference. The researchers concluded the small amount of the T3 which is normally secreted by the healthy thyroid may be important to the brain.
The New England Journal of Medicine Effects of Thyroxine as Compared with Thyroxine plus Triiodothyronine in Patients with Hypothyroidism
Volume 340:424-429 February 11, 1999 Number 6

Background Patients with hypothyroidism are usually treated with thyroxine (levothyroxine) only, although both thyroxine and triiodothyronine are secreted by the normal thyroid gland. Whether thyroid secretion of triiodothyronine is physiologically important is unknown.

Methods We compared the effects of thyroxine alone with those of thyroxine plus triiodothyronine (liothyronine) in 33 patients with hypothyroidism. Each patient was studied for two five-week periods. During one period, the patient received his or her usual dose of thyroxine. During the other, the patient received a regimen in which 50 µg of the usual dose of thyroxine was replaced by 12.5 µg of triiodothyronine. The order in which each patient received the two treatments was randomized. Biochemical, physiologic, and psychological tests were performed at the end of each treatment period.

Results The patients had lower serum free and total thyroxine concentrations and higher serum total triiodothyronine concentrations after treatment with thyroxine plus triiodothyronine than after thyroxine alone, whereas the serum thyrotropin concentrations were similar after both treatments. Among 17 scores on tests of cognitive performance and assessments of mood, 6 were better or closer to normal after treatment with thyroxine plus triiodothyronine. Similarly, among 15 visual-analogue scales used to indicate mood and physical status, the results for 10 were significantly better after treatment with thyroxine plus triiodothyronine. The pulse rate and serum sex hormone–binding globulin concentrations were slightly higher after treatment with thyroxine plus triiodothyronine, but blood pressure, serum lipid concentrations, and the results of neurophysiologic tests were similar after the two treatments.

Conclusions In patients with hypothyroidism, partial substitution of triiodothyronine for thyroxine may improve mood and neuropsychological function; this finding suggests a specific effect of the triiodothyronine normally secreted by the thyroid gland."

Combined Thyroxine/Liothyronine Treatment Does Not Improve Well-Being, Quality of Life, or Cognitive Function Compared to Thyroxine Alone: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Patients with Primary Hypothyroidism "T4 is standard treatment for hypothyroidism. A recent study reported that combined T4/liothyronine (T3) treatment improved well-being and cognitive function compared with T4 alone. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial with a crossover design in 110 patients (101 completers) with primary hypothyroidism in which liothyronine 10 µg was substituted for 50 µg of the patients’ usual T4 dose. No significant (P < 0.05) difference between T4 and combined T4/T3 treatment was demonstrated on cognitive function, quality of life scores, Thyroid Symptom Questionnaire scores, subjective satisfaction with treatment, or eight of 10 visual analog scales assessing symptoms. For the General Health Questionnaire-28 and visual analog scales assessing anxiety and nausea, scores were significantly (P < 0.05) worse for combined treatment than for T4 alone. Serum TSH was lower during T4 treatment than during combined T4/T3 treatment (mean ± SEM, 1.5 ± 0.2 vs. 3.1 ± 0.2 mU/liter; P < 0.001), a potentially confounding factor; however, subgroup analysis of subjects with comparable serum TSH concentrations during each treatment showed no benefit from combined treatment compared with T4 alone. We conclude that in the doses used in this study, combined T4/T3 treatment does not improve well-being, cognitive function, or quality of life compared with T4 alone.
This work was supported by Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital Research Foundation.
Abbreviations: GHQ-28, General Health Questionnaire 28; SF-36, Short Form 36; TSQ, Thyroid Symptom Questionnaire.

T3/T4 protocol and Armour thyroid replacement (July 2000) I have received several emails about Armour thyroid replacement. Well this gives the medical opinion on Armour. "Thyroid extract (Armour Thyroid) is generally not recommended due to variation in potency and contains large amounts of T3 which can cause palpitations and tremors."

Depression Can Confuse Diagnosis of Hashimoto's Encephalopathy Depression can be caused by Hashimoto's so it's important that doctors correctly diagnosis the hashimoto's.

Menstrual Problems and Thyroid Disease: The Effects of Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism on Menstruation Are your menstrual cycles coming more frequently or lasting longer? It may be hypothyroidism. Artical explains common menstual problems caused by thyroid disease. Your GYN may not know this information. I know mine doesn't and I just learned what was causing mine by reading this artical. Also stress can aggravate the thyroid condition which worsens symptoms.

The Thyroid/Menopause Connection Many women develop hypothyroidism which may be confused with going through menopause. "Many women confuse hypothyroidism symptoms with menopause symptoms. Hot flashes, insomnia, irritability, palpitations and “fuzzy thinking” are common symptoms of both."

The Thyroid/Menopause Connection -- Information from Richard and Karilee Shames, Authors of Thyroid Power "Richard Shames, M.D. graduated Harvard and University of Pennsylvania, did research at the National Institutes of Health with Nobel Prize winner Marshall Nirenberg, and has been in private practice for twenty five years. Dr. Shames practices holistic medicine -- with a focus on thyroid and autoimmune conditions -- out of Boca Raton, Florida, and has for twenty years been engaged in the search for answers about thyroid disease. Karilee Halo Shames R.N., Ph.D., Dr. Shames' wife, is herself hypothyroid, and is a Clinical Specialist in Psychiatric Nursing and a Certified Holistic Nurse with a PhD. in Holistic Studies. The Shames have a new book called Thyroid Power out in June of 2001, talking about thyroid disease."

NEUROMUSCULAR DISORDERS & ENDOCRINE DISEASE Outline of neuromuscular symptoms in hypothyroidism. Muscle cramps,pain and weakness are common symptoms.

THYROID-ASSOCIATED OPHTHALMOPATHY AUTOANTIGEN, 64-KD HASHIMOTO THYROIDITIS AUTOANTIGEN, 64-KD "Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) is a progressive eye condition associated with autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD), particularly Graves hyperthyroidism. TAO also occurs in a small proportion of patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis." Some folks with hashimoto's thyroiditis do have eye problems associated with the thyroid disease.

RIEDEL'S THYROIDITIS "In 1896 Riedel described a chronic sclerosing thyroiditis, occurring especially in women, that tends to progress inexorably to complete destruction of the thyroid gland and frequently causes pressure symptoms in the neck 76-78. It is exceedingly rare." I've included a section on this rare condition.

Wilson's Thyroid Syndrome "Classically, people with Wilson's Thyroid Syndrome get symptoms that tend to:
Come on or worsen under periods of severe physical or emotional stress.
Persist even after the stress has passed.
Can get worse in stages with each subsequent stress."

Wilson's Reverse T3 Dominance Syndrome "However, when a person experiences prolonged stress, the adrenal glands respond by manufacturing a large amount of cortisol. Cortisol inhibits the conversion of T4 to T3 and favors the conversion of T4 to RT3. If stress is prolonged, a condition called Reverse T3 Dominance occurs and persists even after the stress passes and cortisol levels fall. Apparently, RT3 itself acts like cortisol and blocks the conversion of T4 to T3.

Reverse T3 Dominance is the cause of hypometabolism because too many receptor sites are blocked by RT3 and the chemical reactions of life slow down. These reactions give off heat and are the source of heat in the body. They make us warm blooded. When those reactions slow down, our temperature drops. This drop in temperature slows down enzymes in every cell of the body causing a condition of Multiple Enzyme Dysfunction.

What are the effects of Multiple Enzyme Dysfunction? Here they are:

fatigue, headache, migraine, PMS, irritability, fluid retention, anxiety and panic attacks, hair loss, depression, decreased memory and concentration, low sex drive, unhealthy nails, low motivation and ambition, and on and on."

Wilson's Syndrome A man with chronic fatigue syndrome shares his experience with Wilson's Syndrome along with some precautions about the treatment with T3.

Hashimoto's Thyroiditis "In Dr. Wilson's experience, patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Wilson's Thyroid Syndrome respond indistinguishably from other patients suffering from WTS. The Hashimoto's patients are no more, or less likely to respond favorably to the treatment, have side effects, or to relapse once their symptoms have been corrected. In addition, one doctor reports that he's seen anti-thryoid antibody levels drop in Hashimoto's patients treated with T3."

MayoClinic.com Good overview of hypothyroidism which also includes a good explaination of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Also list "risk factors" in developing hypothyroidism.

Autoimmune Disease A good overview of autoimmune disease especially in women. It does give some insight on the causes, effects and occurance of various autoimmune disease including hashimoto's. About 25% of people with hashimoto's thyroiditis do have another diagnosed autoimmune disease.

Health A to Z This site provides links to a lot of good and informative sites (both medically oriented and patient oriented). After clicking on to the site enter "hypothyroidism" in the search blank. Then hit "go", this will pull up a bunch of sites.

Journal of American Medical Association Archives of Internal Medicine artical entitled "Neurocognitive Aspects of Hypothyroidism" by Anthony T. Dugbartey, PhD This artical abstract acknowledges there is significant neurocognitive deficits and that treatment with hormone to return the to eurthyroidism (normal thyroid hormone levels) may be associated with only partial and inconsistant patterns of recovery of overall neurocognitive function. This web site apparently has just moved and it appears they still have to work out some computer glitches in their search mechanisms.

An unliganded thyroid hormone receptor causes severe neurological dysfunction "Congenital hypothyroidism and the thyroid hormone (T3) resistance syndrome are associated with severe central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction. Because thyroid hormones are thought to act principally by binding to their nuclear receptors (TRs), it is unexplained why TR knock-out animals are reported to have normal CNS structure and function. To investigate this discrepancy further, a T3 binding mutation was introduced into the mouse TR- locus by homologous recombination. Because of this T3 binding defect, the mutant TR constitutively interacts with corepressor proteins and mimics the hypothyroid state, regardless of the circulating thyroid hormone concentrations. Severe abnormalities in cerebellar development and function and abnormal hippocampal gene expression and learning were found. These findings demonstrate the specific and deleterious action of unliganded TR in the brain and suggest the importance of corepressors bound to TR in the pathogenesis of hypothyroidism."

Hashimoto's Encephalopathy "Hashimoto's encephalopathy is a subacute condition associated with autoimmune thyroiditis. Its presentation varies from focal neurologic deficits to global confusion. Unlike encephalopathy associated with hypothyroidism, Hashimoto's encephalopathy responds to steroid therapy and not thyroxine replacement."

Hashimoto's Encephalopathy "Hashimoto's Thyroiditis is the autoimmune thyroid disease that is the most common cause of hypothyroidism, an underactive thyroid. A very rare condition associated with Hashimoto's Thyroiditis is Hashimoto's Encephalopathy, a neuroendocrine disorder. Much like the antibodies in Hashimoto's Thyroiditis attack the thyroid, in Hashimoto's Encephalopathy, antibodies attack neurons in the brain. While Hashimoto's Encephalopathy is quite rare (there may only be several dozen diagnosed patients in the U.S.) it is also likely that there are many more undiagnosed sufferers. Because it is little known and its symptoms are primarily neurological, it is easy to misdiagnosis or overlook and the symptoms frequently lead to mistaken neurological diagnoses."

Hashimoto's Encephalopathy: A Neuroendocrine Disorder "There are some conflicting views by researchers as to Hashimoto's Encephalopathy being a type of autoimmune cerebral vasculitis, a neuroimmunological syndrome, a neurological encephalopathy, a condition that develops due to Hashimoto's Thyroiditis, or perhaps a disorder that should be classified separately. What is known is that it is a neuroendocrine disorder - meaning it affects both the endocrine system, and the neurological (nervous) system.

Hashimoto's Encephalopathy is underdiagnosed - it is likely that more cases exist than are actually properly diagnosed. It is also a treatable condition, but not curable, however, long term prognosis is good with proper treatment. It is also a relapsing condition, and a steroid responsive disorder, treatable with pral corticosteroids (Prednisone or its derivatives.) Hashimoto's Encephalopathy typically have high antithyroid antibody titers as do patients with Hashimoto's Thyroiditis, and all patients with Hashimoto's Encephalopathy eventually are diagnosed with Hashimoto's Thyroiditis as well.

As with Hashimoto's Thyroiditis, antibodies attack the thyroid gland, but with Hashimoto's Encephalopathy, antibodies also attack neurons in the brain. The neurological symptoms frequently lead to mistaken neurological diagnoses.

Many symptoms can occur. Some patients experience many of these symptoms, others may show some but not all of the symptoms listed here. Symptoms include:

Concentration Problems
Attention Span Problems
Difficulty Retaining Information
Short Term Memory Problems
Seizure Activity
Monoclonal Jerks - Involuntary Muscle Jerks
Coordination Difficulties
Episodes of Stroke
Episodes of Stroke-Like Deterioration
Right Sided Hemiparesis - Right Sided Partial Paralysis
Aphasia - Speech Difficulties
Articulation Difficulties
Word Finding Difficulties
Fine Motor Movement Problems - Coordination of arms, hands, fingers"

Distinct Pediatric Manifestations of Hashimoto's Encephalopathy Described Artical reports the difference between teens and adults with this condition.

HELP! My TSH Is "Normal" But I Think I'm Hypothyroid Mary Shomon of About.com wrote an artical on TSH being normal but having hypothyroidism symptoms. I've gotten several emails pertaining to this same question. Excellent artical that explains lab values, interpretations, doctors' opinions, progression of hashimoto's thyroiditis and what to do about those symptoms.

Medical Testing Protocols "Life Extension Foundation has some pertinent information related to hypothyroidism TSH, T4 and T3" A visitor to my site emailed me this info.

Low Metabolism or Hypothyroidism by Richard M. Alford, M.D. (Copyright 2000) Paper on the etiology and prevalence of hypothyroidism in today's society, it's impact on other conditions as well as treatment modalities. It's a lengthy artical and some places may be controversal. (The doc who first started doing surgery to correct Chairi Malformation was at first greatly criticized by the medical community but now researchers are now studying this abnormality and it appears the medical community is accepting the doc's theory as a viable treatment.)

WrittenByMe Articals on Hypothyroidism including one on the statistics of hypothyroidism. "Statistics show that nearly one third of all women suffer from Hypothyroidism, but only about half of those have been diagnosed."

NEUROPEPTIDE LINKED TO DECREASED COGNITIVE FUNCTION AFTER EARLY-LIFE STRESS Artical give good insight into what may play a role in the cognitive problems people with hypothyroidism experience as well as people with other conditions. "Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) appears have a role in the mechanisms associated with cognitive impairment that develops after stress in early life, according to the results of experiments in an animal model."

Related Conditions There are several conditions and diseases that are related to or are worsened by thyroid disease.

Thyroid Foundation of Canada Site offers information on various types of thyroid disease.

Thyroid Disease Information Source and News Site has a lot of news and information on thyroid diseases.

Broda Barnes Foundation "The Foundation works nationally and internationally to disseminate the work of Dr. Barnes and other pioneers in the field of thyroid and other endocrine dysfunctions through lectures, seminars, consultations, and publications to physicians, medical research personnel, health professionals, clinics and the lay public." This site was recommended by one of the visitors to my site.

EndocrineWeb.com Information on hypothyroidism and other thyroid disease as well as online support.

The Thyroid Society Provides general information on thyroid disease and some professional information.

American Thyroid Association This site provides more information on thyroid disease, research, and links to other sites. This site also gives information on research grants.

ThyroLink Provides current detailed medical information on thyroid disease. Once you click on this link click on literature and there is a vast array of information such as diagnosis, treatment symptoms (in details), hypothyroidism's effect on the heart. This site is designed for the medical community but you can find answers to questions you may have that your doctor may not have answered.

Your Thyroid Gland Central This site give good concise medical and patient orientated information on thyroid disease.

Thyroid info.com Site has a lot of information. It looks a little junky (ok, a lot junky) but scroll down past the books and you'll see lots of links to news and research on thyroid disease.

Reversing Hashimoto's Hypothyroidism Robert T. Dirgo shares how he reduced his thyroid symptoms as well as provides a lot of links for farther information and support groups.

Report: It's all in the timing Investigators: Kayo Inaba and Ralph Steinman (Tuesday Jul 24th, 2001) by Julie Clayton "How the immune system avoids attacking self-tissue is an ongoing conundrum for immunologists: many of the same T cells that recognize foreign pathogens can also respond to self, causing autoimmune disease. Now it seems that the answer may lie with the very cells that T cells need for stimulation - dendritic cells. Most of the time, they are busy switching T cells off, rather than on, according to a report today."

Autoimmune Illnesses List of articals and reports on various autoimmune diseases.

Autoimmunity in a New Vein? This is a very interesting artical. I included this section since sometimes good articals tend to disappear after awhile. "Now a Texas-based company called Pathobiotek Diagnostics says a newly discovered, blood-based bacterium may be a trigger for MS, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), and other forms of autoimmune disease. It all started a few years back when respected pathologist Luther E. Lindner joined colleagues and investors to pursue "the strange organisms" he'd found in human blood and tissue over the years. As part of that effort, a researcher working under Lindner used a novel culture system to see if he could identify the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi in a patient thought to have Lyme disease, often so similar to MS and CFS that the conditions may seem indistinguishable. "Lo and behold," says Lindner, "we saw a few bacteria wiggling around, but they were not spirochetes and, so, clearly not B. burgdorferi or Lyme."

"The general dogma is that the bloodstream of normal people is sterile." Lindner was, to put it mildly, intrigued. "The general dogma in medicine up until very recently," he explains, "is that the bloodstream in normal people is sterile. It was not supposed to have bacteria floating around in it, but there they were."

Pursuing the discovery, Lindner studied a group of 66 patients with CFS, MS, and other forms of autoimmune disease, including rheumatoid arthritis and lupus. Focusing on MS patients alone, he made a notable observation: Those with symptoms had the odd bacteria present in high numbers, while those in remission generally did not. To determine whether the bacteria and the symptoms were truly related, he began treating symptomatic patients empirically with antibiotics, changing medications when symptoms remained. If patients were treated long enough, from two to six months and in some cases more, he says, "about 50 percent improved. We observed that symptomatic treatment correlated with levels of bacteria in the blood.

Despite his ability to improve the outcome for many patients, however, there were roadblocks to overcome. For one thing, a percentage of patients responded to antibiotic treatment by getting drastically sicker than they'd been before. It turns out, says Lindner, that antibiotics in this subgroup of patients stimulated bacterial growth, an effect he has traced to a specific pump in the bacterial cell walls."

AOL Search on Hypothyroidism Want to look for more sites on hypothyroidism. AOL has over 600 sites listed on hypothyroidism.

Thyroid disease & Pregnancy

Thyroid problems and pregnancy by EndrocineWeb.com Headaches, anxiety, nervousness, and hypertension. "The most common thyroid disorder occurring around or during pregnancy is thyroid hormone deficiency, or hypothyroidism. The details of hypothyroidism are covered on several other pages on our site, so only those factors pertaining to pregnancy are discussed here. Hypothyroidism can cause a variety of changes in a woman's menstrual periods: irregularity, heavy periods, or loss of periods. When hypothyroidism is severe, it can reduce a woman's chances of becoming pregnant. Checking thyroid gland function with a simple blood test is an important part of evaluating a woman who has trouble becoming pregnant. If detected, an underactive thyroid gland can be easily treated with thyroid hormone replacement therapy. If thyroid blood tests are normal, however, treating an infertile woman with thyroid hormones will not help at all, and may cause other problems."

This is an email I got awhile back I thought I'ld share.

"Hi. Thanks for replying. I have been going through fertility cycles with fertility medications and artificial intrauterine insemination… NO SUCCESS YET. I switched doctor’s and found out that AUTOIMMUNE disease does have an effect on fertility. In some cases women with an autoimmune disease of any type, could have one of two problems:
A) They are conceiving without knowing it and do not make blocking antibodies and therefore the fertilized egg is viewed as foreign and destroyed by the women’s body. For this they take the husband’s blood, purify it to get only white blood cells and inject under the skin of the woman numerous times until she begins to develop her own blocking antibodies. I found info last night that said many couples try and try and try with no luck and that is why.
B) Another problem is that there are too many killer cells and what they do here are infusions of white blood cells from a donor, and they give it to the woman and these wbc act as a sponge to the killer cells allowing a pregnancy to happen and then thrive.
I just found out last night that autoimmune diseases play a BIG role in being able to get pregnant.
Interesting huh? That means there sure is hope….. I have just been going in the wrong direction."

Pregnancy, Fertility & Infertility Information on thyroid conditions such as hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism and their effect on fertility, their relationship to infertility, thyroid antibodies, and their impact on healthy pregnancy and the post-partum period.

Fertility and Thyroid Disease: Frequently Asked Questions About How to Overcome Thyroid-Related Infertility and Get Pregnant When You Have Thyroid Disease

Hypothyroidism and Pregnancy -- Frequently Asked Questions About Being Pregnant With an Underactive Thyroid

Thyroid Disease, Fertility and Pregnancy Mary Shomon complied the artical on common asked questions about the effect of thyroid disease on pregnancy with the help of Sheldon Rubenfeld, M.D., F.A.C.P., F.A.C.E., a practicing thyroidologist, and Founding Chairman and Medical Director of the Thyroid Society for Education and Research. Dr. Rubenfeld is also Clinical Associate Professor of Medicine at Baylor College of Medicine and a Fellow in both the American College of Endocrinology and the American College of Physicians.

MECHANISMS OF HYPERTENSION DIFFER IN PATIENTS WITH THYROID DISORDERS The mechanisms that produce hypertension in patients with hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism differ, with hypothyroid patients being more salt-sensitive than hyperthyroid patients.

JOURNAL SCAN - DIABETES & ENDOCRINOLOGY Journal Scan is the clinician's guide to the latest clinical research findings in The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, JAMA, and The New England Journal of Medicine relating to diabetes, endocrinology, and metabolism.

Below are sites which provide information on related conditions which have some common symptoms with hashimoto's thyroiditis. Some people have these conditions along with hashimoto's thyroiditis or hypothyroidism.

Palpitations? Pounding? Panic Attacks? You Might Have Mitral Valve Prolapse! Mitral Valve Prolapse and Thyroid Disease "If you are experiencing heart palpitations, heart pounding, dizziness, sleeplessness, or panic attacks, and there doesn't appear to be an explanation for it, you may have mitral valve prolapse syndrome, or MVP syndrome. Recent medical research has found that the prevalence of mitral valve prolapse is substantially greater in patients with autoimmune thyroid disorders such as Graves' Disease and Hashimoto's Thyroiditis. One medical reference that supports this finding includes the research reported in the journal Cardiology.

According to the Heart Surgery Forum, MVP is the most common heart valve abnormality, with estimates ranging from 2 million or more Americans diagnosed with this condition, and most are women (about 80%). MVP syndrome also has a strong hereditary tendency, although the exact cause is unknown.

First, let's look at what the mitral valve actually is. The mitral valve is one of the heart's four valves. Valves are like doors, and the mitral valve opens and closes between the left atrium (upper chamber) from the left ventricle (lower chamber and pumping chamber).

The mitral valve has two flaps. Normally, the mitral valve allows blood to flow only in one direction. Both flaps open when blood is flowing from the left atrium and filling the left ventricle. Both flaps then close tightly when the left ventricle contracts and pumps the blood out to the body.

But when you have MVP, one or both valve flaps are enlarged. When the heart contracts or pumps, the flaps don't close smoothly or evenly. Instead, part of one or both flaps collapses backward into the left atrium. This sometimes allows a small amount of blood to leak backward through the valve and may cause a heart murmur.

Symptoms of MVP most regularly reported include:

Pounding, fast heartbeat (the medical term is "tachycardia").
Irregular heart beat, "palpitations," also feelings of "heart flutter" or extra heart beats. Usually these are harmless. Rarely, potentially serious heart rhythm abnormalities may cause palpitations, requiring further evaluation and treatment.
Fatigue, weakness, tiring easily, and having a low tolerance for exercise. These are the most common complaints. There are theories that people with MVP may have imbalances in their autonomic nervous system -- it regulates heart rate and breathing -- that cause inadequate blood oxygen delivery to the working muscles during exertion, thereby causing fatigue.
Chest pain. Chest pain can be sharp or dull, lasting from a few seconds to several hours. The chest pain with MVP rarely takes place during or after exercise or exertion.
Panic attacks, anxiety attacks, and depression are associated with MVP. Like fatigue, these symptoms are believed to be related to imbalances of the autonomic nervous system.
Headaches and migraines
Dizziness or fainting spells, lightheadedness especially when first standing up.
Intestinal problems - such as irritable bowel syndrome.
Shortness of breath. This is usually described as the inability to take in a deep breath. It may occur at rest or with activity. The shortness of breath has not been found to be related to lung abnormalities.
Chronically cold hands and feet.
Problems with memory or a feeling of fogginess, difficulty concentrating.
Numbness or tingling of the arms or legs.

Protocol for Cognitive Assessment for CFIDS by Curt A. Sandman, PhD & Stephanie Moore, PsyD This artical is research oriented but provides some good information on the cognitive problems of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFIDS chronic fatigue immune deficiency syndrome). These cognitive problems is also common in fibromyalgia which also commonly co-exists in CFS patients (& vice versa). After clicking onto this site scroll down to the section "CFIDS Chronicle Articles from 18 Sept 92 Physicians Forum", then go down to the article "Protocol for Cognitive Assessment of CFIDS".

I got this in a newsletter & found it a little alarming.
Entry for FM in the Incapacity Benefit Handbook from the Department of Social Security (United Kingdom)
The Incapacity Benefit Handbook (Revised)
18. Fibromyalgia

1. Fibromyalgia is a term applied to a syndrome in which the commonest symptom is diffuse muscle pain, felt predominantly in the neck and back. Other symptoms are variable, and may include generalised morning stiffness, fatiguability after minimal exertion, disturbed sleep, headache, anxiety and depression. There may be dysaesthesiae of the extremities. The condition may cause significant disability such that affected people are unable to cope with ordinary domestic activities.

2. The condition is most commonly seen in women aged between 40 and 60.

3. There is a marked discrepancy between symptoms, disability, and objective clinical findings, the main finding being of widespread, symmetrical, diffuse areas of hyperalgesia and muscle tenderness. The areas of tenderness are those which in a normal person are uncomfortable to firm pressure; in a person with fibromyalgia the reaction to firm pressure is exaggerated.

4. The commonest tender site are:
* the lower cervical and lower lumbar spine
* the base of the skull
* the mid-point of the upper trapezius muscle
* the second costochondral junction
* the lateral epicondyle of the elbow
* the upper outer quadrant of the buttock
* the greater trochanter of the femur
* the medial fat pad of the knee.

5. The cause of the condition is unknown. There is no clear evidence of a physical cause, and there may be overlap with other conditions such as Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

Hashimotto's produces similar symptoms including the migraine type headaches, neck and pain along the spine (neck pains I just learned are from a couple of bulging discs (1 a minor bulge & other less than minor bulge (between C-6 & C-7 the other between C5 & C6) apparently life stresses can cause discs to bulge & is not necessarily due to injuries as once thought) (headaches may be partly due to what is called a chairi 1 malformation), as well as stiffness and muscle cramps. These "abnormalities" may be common in FM & CFS but may also be present in people who "can relate" but don't have the chronic debilitating pain & fatigue that never goes away. Stress can cause "symptoms" but these "symptoms" do go away but under extreme "stress" on the body (pregnancy, accident, illness, etc) seems to alter the neurological system to the point that these symptoms become intense causing severe pain & fatigue that remains. (My hypothesis)

fmsNews It is a new site offering extensive information, the latest articles as well as a monthly newsletter. Our objective is to help keep people with fibromyalgia or chronic fatigue syndrome informed about critical developments concerning their conditions.

FIBROMYALGIA A personal website where a person with FM shares what she found to help her. (Not a multilevel marketing scam.)

ME and CFS References research summaries.

Interested in Research?
FMS Patient Registry "The FMS Patient Registry is seeking volunteers to participate in a research program that could significantly impact how FMS is diagnosed and treated, with the goal of understanding the various factors associated with FMS, and as a result developing better diagnostic and therapeutic tools."
"You may also qualify to participate in the FMS GENOMICS RESEARCH program - an opportunity to help study the links between genetics and FMS."

Behavioral Medicine Research CenterMain site for study.
RBC Mass, Autonomic Nervous System Integrity & Syncope Susceptibility in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome "web page that describes the study and also has links for downloading our brochure, as well as the electronic forms that we use to determine eligibility."

Office for Human Research Protections Federal Policy for the Protection of Human Subjects

Congressional Gulf War Testimony (testimony from the Subcommittee on National Security,Veterans Affairs and International Relations hearing on Gulf War Illnesses. I got this in an email. "If you are interested in reading any of the testimony from the site URL'd below (and there's a "LOT"), do take the time to scroll down to URNOVITZ and then to NICHOLSON if nothing else."

RESCIND, Inc CFIDS site. "German Philosopher Edwin Schopenhauer once said, "All Truth goes through Three Stages: First, It is ridiculed. Second, It is Vehemently opposed. Finally, It is accepted as being Self Evident.""

Metabolic Health Fibromyalgia, Hypothyroidism, Thyroid Hormone Resistance Dr. John Lowe's site on the link between hypothyroidism and Fibromyalgia.
I got this email from a visitor which helps explain the allergies many people email me about.
Hello my fellow sufferers
I was talking on the phone with dr. John Lowe about this problem. He says in a hypothyroid condition increased numbers of mast cells and alpha 2 receptors are found in the body. These are the cause of allergies as they influence the amount of histamine produced. According to him they diminish in number and allergies improve when the hypothyriodism is properly treated. Some people need to take large amounts of vit C. Dr Lowe`s website: www.drlowe.com. Good luck!

Chronic Fatigue, Fibromyalgia, and Autoimmune Thyroid Disease Relationship between these conditions.

Do stressors and stress management intervention affect physical symptoms and physiological functioning in chronic fatigue syndrome?

Michael H. Antoni, & Donna Weiss, Department of Psychology, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida, USA

The interaction of stressors, stress moderators and immunologic dysfunction (elevations in cytokines such as interleukin-1 [IL-1], IL-4, and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]) may perpetuate the physical symptoms associated with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) (e.g., fatigue, joint pain, fever), subsequent increases in illness burden (e.g., disruptions in daily activities), and further disturbances in immune system functioning. We present empirical evidence that stressors, coping and stress responses are associated with the severity of symptoms and illness burden and with a wide range of immunologic abnormalities in patients diagnosed with CFS. Stressful life events, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies were associated with the severity of physical illness burden in one sample of CFS patients. A second sample followed longitudinally showed that major environmental stressors can predict severity of clinical relapses, increased physical symptom frequency and severity, and signs of immune system dysregulation (e.g., cytokine elevations, lymphocyte activation markers, natural killer cell functioning). Here, putative stress-moderator variables (optimism and social support) buffered the severity of physical symptom exacerbation, illness burden and immunologic status. As a direct result of this work, we describe the rationale, development and preliminary effects of a randomized trial of a theoretically-derived cognitive behavioral stress management (CBSM) intervention designed to improve clinical status and decrease illness burden in CFS patients by modulating stress responses and associated indicators of immune system dysregulation.
(c) 2002 American Psychosomatic Society
Archive of All Online Issues: 1 Sep 1965 - 1 Jan 2002

Correlations between HPA axis dysregulations and patient characteristics in chronic fatigue syndrome: Implications for etiology and intervention

Jens GaabH, Veronika Engert, Tanja Schad, Thomas H. Schurmeyer, Ulrike EhlertH Center for Psychobiological and Psychosomatic Research, University of Trier, Germany

Subtle dysregulations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis have been proposed as an underlying pathophysiological mechanism in CFS. Within a cognitive-behavioral approach, this study attempted to assess the relationship between patient characteristics and HPA axis dysregulations.

To evaluate the integrity of the HPA axis the Insulin-Tolerance-Test, a centrally acting neuroendocrine challenge test, was performed on patients and controls. ACTH, salivary free cortisol and total plasma cortisol levels were assessed as a measure of the HPA axis stress response. Correlations of patient characteristics were calculated with integrated area under the response curve (AUC) responses for all endocrine parameters.

CFS patients had a significantly reduced area under the ACTH response curve (AUC) in the ITT. The AUC was significantly associated with the duration of CFS symptoms (r = -0.592, P = 0.005) and the severity of fatigue symptomatology (r = -0.41, P = 0.045). Also, duration of CFS was correlated with the severity of fatigue symptoms (r = 0.38, P = 0.045). Similar associations were not observed for cortisol parameters.

It has been postulated that neuroendocrine dysregulations observed in CFS are of an acquired nature. The results of a strong association between the integrated ACTH response and the duration of CFS point to a secondary origin of HPA dysregulations and emphasizes the need to consider known risk factors for the chronicity of CFS symptoms, such as profound inactivity, deconditioning and sleep abnormalities, as possible candidates for secondary causes of neuroendocrine dysregulations in CFS. These results confirm the cognitive-behavioral model of CFS and could serve as multidimensional approach to link psychological factors and physiological dysregulations in CFS.
(c) 2002 American Psychosomatic Society

Characteristics of Long-Duration CFS Artical compares symptoms ratings of people with CFS for short duration compared with those who had CFS 10 or more years. "In addition to greater cognitive difficulties, long-duration patients also reported significantly higher frequencies of fibromyalgia (FM) and depression compared to the short-duration patients, which may further increase their impairment."

Thyroid Disease with Mary Shomon Hypothyroidism, Fibromyalgia and the Linkage to Candida (Yeast) Sensitivity and The Yeast Syndrome An Interview With Dr. Michael McNett
The Paragon Clinic Dr. Michael McNett's pratice.

Candida-Yeast Connection Dr. William G Crook's site gives information on how candida yeast is related to many chronic medical conditions.

Merck Manual Fibromyalgia which is a condition thought to be autoimmune related and causes pain or achy pain, tenderness, and stiffness of muscles, areas of tendon insertions, and adjacent soft tissue structures.

Immunesupport.com A lot of research articals and support information on CFS and fibromyalgia. It's a very large site.

CEFCA Chronic Fatigue & Immune Dysfunction Syndrome, Environmental Illness, Fibromyalgia, Candida, and Allergies (Food and Multiple Chemical Sensitivities) support group. Site provides some information on these conditions which share many similar symptoms. Site also includes a lot of links on these conditions.

Scripps Team Finds Supporting Evidence For An Autoimmune Factor In Chronic Fatigue Syndrome "The study found that approximately 52 percent of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome develop autoantibodies to components of the nuclear envelope protein. According to Dr. K. Konstantinov, from the Scripps Research Institute, LaJolla, California, previous studies led to the hypothesis that chronic, low- level activation of the immune system is an etiologic factor in chronic fatigue syndrome. Dr. Konstantinov and others investigated the blood of 60 affected patients for evidence of this activation. The researchers observed that the nuclear envelope-specific autoantibodies of the IgG isotope reacted predominantly with the nuclear envelope protein Iamin B1, providing new laboratory evidence for an autoimmune component in chronic fatigue syndrome.

The Scripps team concluded that the humoral autoimmunity against polypeptide of the nuclear envelope, in addition to other disturbances of the immune system, is a prominent immune derangement in chronic fatigue syndrome."

R.E.D.D., Rnase-L Enzyme Dysfunction Disease & CFS Lots of links on both conditions.

Protein May Lead to First Test for CFIDS "In the new study, Kenny De Meirleir, MD, PhD, and colleagues from the Vrije University of Brussels, Belgium, looked for the presence of a protein known as 2-5A binding protein in the blood of 57 people who had had CFS for an average of seven years. They compared blood samples from these patients with blood from healthy subjects and patients with fibromyalgia or depression.

The protein was found in 88% of CFS patients, 38% of fibromyalgia patients, 32% of healthy people, and 14% of depressed patients.

According to the researchers, the protein is directly involved in the immune system's ability to fight viruses that can invade the body. Up to 90% of patients with CFS report that their symptoms started after a viral infection. This has led some researchers to suggest that certain viruses may actually cause CFS. But others say a dysfunction of the immune system that causes it to fail to respond, or to over-respond, to invading viruses may lead to CFS symptoms."

Breakthrough in battle against CFS

A brand-new test can mean an important breakthrough for treatment of CFS and MS.

The biotechnological concern RED, in cooperation with an international research-team, has succeeded in developing a test, that make it possible to diagnose this chronic immune illness in a scientific manner.

The blood test (a Yes/NO test), don't cost more than 25 euro. "This test is an important step forward" said professor Kenny De Meirleir. "How later the diagnosis, how more irreversible damage is brought about. We now know, that CFS do harm to the thyroid glands, already after three till for years.

Worldwide millions of people are stricken by chronic immune diseases and this number is rising. The first medicines will come on the market, at the earliest in three till five years.

Who is Calpain and why is he so mean to my RNaseL?

A Simplified interpretation of "G-Actin Cleavage Parallels 2-5A-Dependent RNase-L Cleavage in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells - Relevance to a Possible Serum-Based Screening Test for Dysregulations in the 2-5A Pathway"

Enzymes are proteins which work to accelerate chemical reactions of various kinds. RNase-L is an enzyme. ATP provides the energy to cause the creation of this enzyme as a specific response to RNA of viral origin. Normally, RNase-L helps breakdown the RNA (genetic information) of viruses and old cell bits.

The usual weight of RNase-L is 80kDa. (A kilodalton - kDa - is a very tiny measure of weight on the atomic level.) Researches find that CFS sufferers have RNase-L molecules which are about half of normal -- 37kDa. These low-weight enzyme molecules are unable properly to carry out their purpose of destroying viruses. These RNaseL molecules may have been cleaved (or split) in half by calpain. This is not normal.

Calpain is also an enzyme, a proteinase). Proteinases are meant to break down proteins. This one prefers Actins, proteins used in muscle activity. This is normal to clean up used proteins. However, any abnormal breakdown of actin protein could have dramatic consequences on the ability of an immune cell to perform its normal function. When calpain does a bad job of chopping up old actin, the fragments are not cleared away as rapidly. By comparing the leftover actin fragments and RNase-L fragments in the blood, there seems to be a direct relation between the two. This may be a way to test for CFS. The greater the percentage of "skinny' RNase-L, the worse the CFS symptoms may be, according to Dr. Suhadolnik. Data also support greater than usual immune cell destruction in every stage of CFS.

A blood-based marker used as a screening test for CFS would make diagnosis much easier and cheaper. A test was developed by R.E.D. Laboratories called The Fragmented Actin Serum Test (FASTest™). This test is used for clinical purposes and can be ordered by a physician. Conditions that have been proposed to trigger the development of CFS include virus infection or other temporary traumatic conditions, stress, and toxins environmental (pesticides) or natural (pfiesteria).

This artical came from Co-Cure but the link was to a German site written in German.
Co-Cure Web Site

What Other Conditions Show the Same Symptoms as Fibromyalgia? List of other conditions which have symptoms similar to FM. It's a personal page but I learned something while reading this. "Polymyalgia rheumatica is one such disorder; it causes pain and stiffness in the neck and shoulders and in the hip and thigh. Morning stiffness is common and patients may also experience fever, weight loss, and fatigue. Tender points with this disorder almost always occur in the hip and shoulder area. It also usually develops in women over 50. A blood test called the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR or sed rate) often shows elevated results in polymyalgia rheumatica. It is important to rule out polymyalgia rheumatica because, although the condition often resolves in about a year, there is a risk of persistent disease and, worse, it is associated with a rare condition called temporal arteritis, which causes blindness if not healed."

About CFIDS Includes information on Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Research, Prevalence, Research Case Definition, Patient Profiles, Patients: Frequently Asked Questions, Related Conditions and Self Assessment.

REFLEX SYMPATHETIC DYSTROPHY I never heard of this condition before until I came across this site. It's symptoms are similar to fibromyalgia. "There are four main symptoms for a diagnosis of RSDS; 1) Constant chronic burning pain 2) Inflammation: 3) Spasms in the blood vessels and muscles of the extremities 4) Insomnia/Emotional Disturbance." The site has a lot of links & info on this condition.

Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Syndrome What is Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Syndrome? Reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome(RSDS), also called complex regional pain syndrome(CRPS), is a painful nerve disorder resulting from a previous injury. It is believed that very high levels of nerve impulses are sent to the injured site, resulting in pain, changes in skin texture and weakening of bones and tissues in that area.

C F S - Information International Site includes a lot of research information and studies on CFS & FM. It has links to the research on each topic and artical.

FIBROMYALGIA Information And Resources "CFS isn't the only illness with widespread muscle and joint pain, intense fatigue and disturbed sleep patterns. The American College of Rheumatology, in Atlanta, estimates that a similar condition, fibromyalgia, afflicts between three million and six million Americans, the vast majority of them women of childbearing age." There may be an even larger number who may have many of the symptoms & abnormalities common to CFS & FM (predisposed to CFS & FM) but do not have the debilitating pain or severe fatigue. Could come to be known as "subclinical cases".

Typically, patients with fibromyalgia have widespread chronic achiness and/or certain areas that are exquisitely painful to the touch. These "tender points" occur within muscles, tendons or joints, distinguishing them from arthritis pain, which affects only the joints. They are clustered around the neck, shoulders, chest, hips, knees and elbows. Patients with fibromyalgia may also suffer periodic bouts of irritable bowel syndrome, marked by constipation and diarrhea, as well as severe, recurrent headaches."

Canadian Expert Consensus Panel Clinical Case Definition for ME/CFS Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. "It is summarized as follows:

POST-EXERTIONAL MALAISE AND FATIGUE: There is a loss of physical and mental stamina, rapid muscular and cognitive fatigability, post-exertional fatigue, malaise and/or pain, and a tendency for other symptoms to worsen. A pathologically slow recovery period (it takes more than 24 hours to recover). Symptoms exacerbated by stress of any kind. Patient must have a marked degree of new onset, unexplained, persistent, or recurrent physical and mental fatigue that substantially reduces activity level. [Editor’s note: The M.E. Society prefers to use “delayed recovery of muscle function,” weakness, and faintness rather than “fatigue.” Further, we disagree that the muscle dysfunction is “unexplained.” See our M.E. Definitional Framework and researchers’ medical explanations on this website.]

SLEEP DISORDER: Unrefreshing sleep or poor sleep quality; rhythm disturbance.

PAIN: Arthralgia and/or myalgia without clinical evidence of inflammatory responses of joint swelling or redness. Pain can be experienced in the muscles, joints, or neck and is sometimes migratory in nature. Often, there are significant headaches of new type, pattern, or severity. [Editor’s note: neuropathy pain is a common symptom and should be added here as well.]

NEUROLOGICAL/COGNITIVE MANIFESTATIONS: Two or more of the following difficulties should be present: confusion, impairment of concentration and short-term memory consolidation, difficulty with information processing, categorizing, and word retrieval, intermittent dyslexia, perceptual/sensory disturbances, disorientation, and ataxia. There may be overload phenomena: informational, cognitive, and sensory overload -- e.g., photophobia and hypersensitivity to noise -- and/or emotional overload which may lead to relapses and/or anxiety.

AUTONOMIC MANIFESTATIONS: Orthostatic Intolerance: e.g., neurally mediated hypotension (NMH), postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS), delayed postural hypotension, vertigo, light-headedness, extreme pallor, intestinal or bladder disturbances with or without irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) or bladder dysfunction, palpitations with or without cardiac arrhythmia, vasomotor instability, and respiratory irregularities. [Editor’s note: low plasma and/or erythrocyte volume should be added as another explanation for orthostatic intolerance in this disease. We also hold that more cardiac symptoms should be listed such as left-side chest aches and resting tachycardias, which, in addition to low blood volume, have also been documented in the research. The full text of the case definition does suggest 24-hour Holter monitoring, and when tachycardias with T-wave inversions or flattenings are present that they not be labeled as nonspecific since they aid in the diagnosis of ME/CFS. See the above link to access the diagnostic part of the document.]

NEUROENDOCRINE MANIFESTATIONS: loss of thermostatic stability, heat/cold intolerance, anorexia or abnormal appetite, marked weight change, hypoglycemia, loss of adaptability and tolerance for stress, worsening of symptoms with stress and slow recovery, and emotional lability.

IMMUNE MANIFESTATIONS: tender lymph nodes, sore throat, flu-like symptoms, general malaise, development of new allergies or changes in status of old ones, and hypersensitivity to medications and/or chemicals.

The illness persists for at least 6 months. It usually has an acute onset, but onset also may be gradual. Preliminary diagnosis may be possible earlier. The disturbances generally form symptom clusters that are often unique to a particular patient. The manifestations may fluctuate and change over time. Symptoms exacerbate with exertion or stress."

Are antidepressant drugs efficacious in the treatment of fibromyalgia? "Conclusion: Antidepressant drugs improve overall symptoms and individual symptoms of fatigue, sleep, and pain in patients with fibromyalgia."
A commentary on this article by Johannes W G Jacobs and R Geenen, of the University Medical Centre, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Orthostatic Intolerance Extensive amount of information related to blood pressure abnormalities commonly found in people with chronic fatigue syndrome.

WrittenByMe List of articals written on different aspects of fibromyalgia from people living with it and people who have friends and loved ones who have fibromyalgia including an artical on fibrofog and one on pregnancy.

Research on Chronic Fatigue Syndrome & Mycoplasma / Chlamydia / Rickettsia Infections Site provides a lot of research articals on these conditions.

CFS - Information International Site has a large amount of research articals on fibromyalgia, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and related conditions.

Premorbid "overactive" lifestyle in chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia Are you a type A personality, perfectionist or very active type person? If so you may be interested in reading this and maybe making a little lifestyle change.

Dr. Nancy Klimas, a Courageous Ally for CFS Patients "Through her research Dr. Klimas has come to the conclusion that there are four primary causes of CFS symptoms. She explains these causes as "a state of immune activation …, [a] nervous system problem, orthostatic intolerance [difficulties standing], and nonrestorative sleep.'" The artical also discusses treatment of CFS.

Chronic Insomnia Shown to be a Medical Condition, Not Just Loss of Sleep How stress over an extended period of time can alter the body and cause physiological changes which causes insomnia. Reading this artical I saw similarities to some changes and effected systems similar to CFS and Fibromyalgia.

UPPER RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS COMMON AMONG GERD PATIENTS "There appears to be a high prevalence of upper respiratory symptoms such as cough, hoarseness, and throat complaints among patients with symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), which may contribute to the link between GERD and asthma, researchers report."

What's the difference between a muscle spasm, a cramp and spasticity? Confused? The answer helps clearify this.

Merck Manual Chronic Fatigue Syndrome characteristic of severe fatigue lasting over 6 months which interfers with daily activities.

CDC Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Provides general information on CFS, common treatment, research and support group information.

Subtypes of CFS: A Review of Findings. Artical reviews four community-based studies that examined subtypes of individuals with CFS. Distinctions between subtype groups based on sociodemographics, illness onset and duration, stressful precipitating events, symptom frequency, and comorbidity characteristics are made with respect to outcome measures of fatigue and symptom severity, functional ability, and psychiatric comorbidity.

Living With Illness Katrina Berne, Ph.D site on fibromyalgia & chronic fatigue syndrome includes symptoms checklist & articals.

America's Biggest Cover-Up: 50 More Things Everyone Should Know About The Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Epidemic And Its Link To AIDS Very interesting segments comparing similarities between AIDS & CFS symptoms but also gives information pertaining to the Human Herpes Virus 6 found both in AIDS & CFS patients.

Dizziness Can Be A Severe Problem In CFS A segment from the above site which is also very interesting. "Nearly all CFS patients have problems with balance and equilibrium, either occasionally or constantly. It is not known what causes these or other nervous system problems in CFS, or how to cure them.

One patient I interviewed, Al, told me that his dizziness was so pronounced, at times, that the sidewalk he was walking on appeared to be tilting up to meet him.

When this happened he would fall down, and be unable to get up or walk until the dizziness passed.

Balance can be tested very simply by any physician, and CFS re searcher Dr. Paul Cheney performs this test on his patients: The patient stands, feet together, arms at the sides, and closes his or her eyes.

"Then," Dr. Cheney told me, "they fall over." This type of imbalance is very common among his CFS patients, Dr. Cheney says.

AIDS patients can suffer very similar balance disturbances and dizziness, and even have seizures (which CFS patients can also experience). Headache, memory loss, confusion, and weakness of the limbs are other neurological problems that can develop in both CFS and AIDS.

Whatever the exact cause of the balance problems in CFS, it is clear that the central nervous system is very seriously affected by this syndrome."

News and Published Articles On Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Very interesting articals

News and Published Articles On Neurological Disease List of interesting articals pertaining to the nervous system including autoimmune disease triggers.

ImmuneSupport.Com Site has a ton of research articals on FM & CFS as well as general information & support information.

Dr. Lowe's web page Dr. John Lowe is a leading researcher in metabolism, fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome. He concludes that these conditions are caused by Hashimoto's Hypothyroidism. It is a very informative and interesting site. Do check it out. It'll shed light on some of those unanswered questions.

Read my theory on fibromyalgia & chronic fatigue syndrome What causes FM & CFS.

Fibromyalgia, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome & Related Syndromes Provides more information on CFS & FM. It includes many links to other web sites on FM & CFS as well as conducting online research on these conditions.

FMS Canberra Your safe place for personal healing Australia site provides a lot of information on FM and related conditions.

Canberra Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Pages Information from Australia for people with Myalgic Encephalopathy: Fibromyalgia, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Myalgic Encephalomyelitis etc., and Chronic Pain

Looking Good but not Feeling Fine 'Hidden illnesses' affect more than your health. Artical relates to fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome as well as other conditions where the sufferer appears "normal".

Seasonal symptom severity in patients with rheumatic diseases How seasonal changes effect various medical conditions.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome or Lyme Disease? An excellent site which contains a lot of information and links on CFS, lyme disease and related conditions. Jen has been working on this site for a number of years and has a lot of medical research information with links to medical and research oriented sites. If you want to learn a lot about these conditions this site is an excellent resource.

Lots Of Links On Lyme Disease A visitor to my site shared she had lyme disease, CFIDS and many symptoms of Hashimoto's and feel there is a connection. Autoimmune diseases often occur together so I included these links for those who may have have lyme disease in addition to thyroid disease.

Lyme Disease Network Provides the latest news & research on lyme disease.

Lyme Disease and Chronic Fatigue, CFS, CFIDS, ME, Fatigue, etc. Lots of links to sites on these conditions.

Lyme Disease Misdiagnosed as Fibromyalgia Lots of links related to this condition.

Cheryl's Lyme links She has links to many helpful resources including "Lyme and Wilson's syndrome", a thyroid problem often associated with Lyme patients.

Newsgroups & support groups on Lyme Disease This is a good site if you are looking for support in coping with lyme disease.

Chiari Malformation, Cervical Spinal Stenosis and Fibromyalgia Excerpts from various news on the controversy of Chairi 1 Malformation & surgical treatment. It's interesting...

The Adult Chiari I Malformation "The Chiari type I malformation was first identified in 1891 by Dr. Chiari. It is an uncommon, complex, neuromuscular deformity which is present at birth. The brain exists in a cavity surrounded by bone. The brainstem normally sits in a funnel-like cavity just above the spinal cord. The problem occurs when the posterior fossa is not formed properly. Instead of the brainstem sitting in its proper space, the brainstem is displaced downward into the funnel, thus causing pressure on this part of the brain and spinal cord. (Figure 2.) There is also obstruction of the normal flow of CSF through this area because the tonsils of the cerebellum are stuffed into the funnel. Sometimes the brainstem appears atrophic (or shrunken) and may stick to the spinal cord. This downward displacement of the cerebellar tonsils (brain tissue) is called the Chiari malformation." This is a suspected condition that could be related to fibromyalgia & chronic fatigue syndrome. It can cause symptoms or may not cause any detectable symptoms.

Dr. Rosner Leads the Way with other medical doctors to show the Relationship of Spinal Cord Compression to FMS gives 2 studies of how surgery decreased symptoms of CFS, FM & neurally mediated hypotension as well as specific instructions to give your doc if you want an MRI done that could determine if you have Chairi I Malformation.

SPINAL DISEASES & DISORDERS Chiari Malformation Detailed explaination of Chairi I & II Malformations including abnormalities, symptoms & treatment.

The World ACM Association Lots of information on support, coping with symptoms, personal stories and more.

Chairi Malformation information & MRI of Chairi Malformation.

Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome Extensive amount of information and links on POTS and other orthostatic abnormalities.

GENERAL INFORMATION BROCHURE ON NEURALLY MEDIATED HYPOTENSION AND ITS TREATMENT from John Hopkins Hospital. Except of artical on symptoms "Recurrent lightheadedness and fainting are common symptoms, as is an unusual difficulty with prolonged fatigue after a modest amount of physical activity. This post-exertional fatigue can last 24-72 hours, and interferes with many daily activities.

We have also observed that chronic fatigue, muscle aches (or fibromyalgia), headaches, and mental confusion can be prominent symptoms of neurally mediated hypotension even in individuals who do not faint. The mental confusion takes the form of difficulty concentrating, staying on task, paying attention, or finding the right words. Some describe being in a Amental fog.@ It appears that as long as the fainting reflex is activated whenever the person stands or sits upright for a period of time, then the blood pressure is improperly regulated, and these symptoms are the result. Some develop worse fatigue after such activities as reading and concentrating, and this may be due to the fact that for some, the veins of the arms and legs dilate, thereby allowing more blood to pool, rather than constricting in response to mental tasks."

Autoantibodies to Ganglionic Acetylcholine Receptors in Autoimmune Autonomic Neuropathies Antibodies seem to be the underlying cause of a variety of medical conditions. "Conclusions Seropositivity for antibodies that bind to or block ganglionic acetylcholine receptors identifies patients with various forms of autoimmune autonomic neuropathy and distinguishes these disorders from other types of dysautonomia. The positive correlation between high levels of ganglionic-receptor antibodies and the severity of autonomic dysfunction suggests that the antibodies have a pathogenic role in these types of neuropathy."

Adrenal Insufficiency Addison's disease is a severe or total deficiency of the hormones made in the adrenal cortex, caused by a destruction of the adrenal cortex. This is also thought to be an autoimmune disease.

food & digestion corelation

The celiac/autoimmune thyroid disease connection: A major thyroid disease breakthrough connection of gluten intolerance causes thyroid antibodies.

ALL AUTOIMMUNE THYROID DISEASE PATIENTS SHOULD BE TESTED FOR CELIAC DISEASE, SAY EXPERTS "According to Italian researchers, because there is a close connection between celiac disease (gluten intolerance) and autoimmunity, all patients with autoimmune thyroid disease should be tested for celiac disease. ("Celiac Disease in Patients with Autoimmune Thyroiditis," Digestion: International Journal of Gastroenterology, 64:1:2001, 61-65, Vol. 64, No. 1, 2001.)"

Celiac Disease/Gluten Intolerance Overview of Celiac disease. "An intolerance to the gluten, found in wheat, barley, oats, and rye, affects many people worldwide -- forcing sufferers to avoid foods that contain these grains at all costs."

The Doctor's Doctor-Hashimoto's thyroiditis Site includes info on dieases associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. "DISEASE ASSOCIATIONS: CELIAC DISEASE
OBJECTIVE: Coeliac disease (CD) is associated with autoimmune thyroid disease. Gluten sensitivity represents a spectrum, with at one end cases with severe gluten-dependent enteropathy, and at the other subjects with minor signs of deranged mucosal immune response. The aim of this paper was to look for signs of minor small bowel injury and immunohistochemical markers of gluten sensitivity in a group of patients with Hashimoto's disease.

SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Fourteen patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis without serological evidence of CD underwent immunohistochemical analysis of jejunal biopsies.

RESULTS: In 6/14 cases (43%) an increased density of gammadelta T cell receptor bearing intra-epithelial lymphocytes was found. In 6/14 (43%) signs of mucosal T cell activation (presence of interleukin 2 (IL2) receptor (CD25) on lamina propria T cells and/or expression of human lymphocyte antigen (HLA)-DR molecules on crypt epithelial cells) were noted. In 4 out of 6 such cases, HLA haplotypes were described in association with CD.

CONCLUSION: A significant proportion of patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis present signs of 'potential' CD and of activated mucosal T cell immunity. The gluten dependence of such findings remains to be ascertained."

Gluten Intolerance Guide picks List of articals on Celiac disease.

Celiac Disease Information about celiac disease.

The Celiac Sprue Association/United States of America Site provides a lot of information on celiac disease, symptoms, diagnosis and gluten free diet.

Foods that affect your symptoms:
Sweets Carbohydrates Red meat

These were listed on an informal survey a friend is doing. These foods must be troublesome to many folks with autoimmune or stress induced medical problems.

irritable bowel syndrome "This is the place to find out about the therapies and medications for irritable bowel syndrome which can make our lives easier. Hopefully if we can gather all the information in one place, with opinions from real IBS sufferers, we can all help each other."

AllergyDietitian The Food Allergy and Food Intolerance Information Site A large site on food allergies and food intolerance. It has a lot of information but unfortunately I didn't find anything about intolerance to sugar which people can have an adverse reaction to also. It must be rare since I've only met one other person who gets sick from sugar.

Walther W Meyer MD site on nutritional medicine "As a general practitioner, I have spent the greatest part of my life learning how to diagnose diseases and to treat symptoms, and I know that I have been able to help many patients with these skills. Since I have retired from clinical practice, I have had the time to learn a lot more about nutrition and how good nutrition can prevent chronic diseases and improve health.

Our immune systems have become impaired by increasing numbers of toxins that are in our environment, carelessness about our lifestyle, and by the lack of nutrients in our food. This is a deadly combination and results in poor health and disability. Glyconutrients and phytonutrients, found in ripe fresh fruits and vegetables, are the missing link. Average diets are grossly deficient in them. Without these nutrients our cells cannot function properly resulting in decreased immune response, decreased ability to detoxify, and general decrease in efficient cellular function.

We are 'wondrously made' and, if supplied with the necessary nutrients, our healthy bodies can avoid chronic diseases and overcome infections and cancer."

Aspartame Effects of aspartame which is used as a sugar substitute in sodas and many other food products.


Society for Women's Health Research Includes latest research on the biological & phisological differences between women and men contributing to the how diseases, medical conditions and medications effect women and men differently. Also has links to other sites for farther information.

WomenCanDo.org Artical What do women really suffer from. Compares common conditions in women to the rate in men. Autoimmune conditions occurs much more often in women than men.

Merck Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (Disseminated Lupus Erythematosus)

Report: Bacterial genomics reveals MS trigger Investigator: Derek Lenz "Infection with a common bacteria could be the switch that turns on the autoimmune response in multiple sclerosis (MS), a US immunologist claimed today. Derek Lenz, now of the Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, California, described work he carried out as part of Robert Swanborg's team at Wayne State University Medial School in Detroit. He said studies in rats show that an antigen found in the bacteria Chlamydia pneumoniae mimics part of a myelin protein in the animal's central nervous system. When injected into the animal it provokes the immune response that causes the rodent version of MS, experimental allergic encephalitis.">

The Riegle Report: U.S. Chemical and Biological Warfare-Related Dual Use Exports to Iraq and their Possible Impact on the Health Consequences of the Gulf War It's a lengthy artical but it leads suspicion just where some of these strange autoimmune conditions may possibly come from.

National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Site provides information on cholesterol, diet to lower cholesterol and blood pressure. Site has a wide range of information plus a search feature.

Does Milk Do a Body Good? The facts regarding milk. Some people agrue that milk isn't good for people because it comes from a cow. This artical gives the points of arguement and facts. I added it here because many people, who are milk drinkers like me, may find it of interest.

National Guideline Clearinghouse Search to find the medical guidelines for medical and mental conditions. It's a large site.

Americasdoctor You can search for information on any medical condition you choose. It has several articals and also has information on clinical trials.

American Academy of Neurology Information geared towards members of the AAN but does have some good information and links if you search the site.

Neurotools Information on strokes and other related information.

Alternative Health Lots of links on alternative medicine & related topics from SteadyShopper.com I received this link from Gina through an email from her site. If you have a health or thyroid related site and you want me to add it here just let me know. I'll be glad to add the site.

Doctor's Guide Arthritis The latest medical news and information for patients or friends/parents of patients diagnosed with arthritis.

BioMedNet's Conference Reporter at the International Society of Developmental Neuroscience meeting, Sydney, Australia 1-4 February 2002 "reports covering the wide range of sessions which focus on the latest insights into the development of the nervous system, from stem cell research, to axonal guidance, to neurodegeneration."

Wellmed.com Site helps you management your health & can be individualized to your specific health concerns & interests.

Dr. I-Net Site's team of medical professionals identified that it is time to better the patient's experience and give their doctors better controls of their healthcare issues by eliminating the administrative waste while expediting clinical information to all participants.

Is Your Job a Pain in the Back? How job stress truely effects us. A quote from the artical '"Stress can surface anywhere a person has a weak link, whether it be back pain, neck pain, headaches, or whatever," says Rick Delamarter, MD, medical director of the Spine Institute at St. John's Hospital in Santa Monica and associate clinical professor of orthopaedic surgery at the University of California at Los Angeles. "If a person has a propensity for back or neck problems, stress can easily bring them to the surface or exacerbate them."'

Are You Sleeping Enough -- or Too Much? Forget 8-Hour Norm, Study Says

Headache Impact Test How bad is your headache? Take this test to find out.

Spirituality and chronic pain "Spirituality is an important aspect of well-being that many people tend to overlook. Addressing your spiritual needs can have a beneficial effect on your health and may be an effective strategy for managing chronic pain."

Move your body wisely "Using your muscles and joints correctly can help you perform daily activities without aggravating your chronic pain. Learn techniques for performing a variety of tasks in a manner that protects your muscles and joints."

American Lung Association Search all kinds of lund diseases including pnuemonia.

Center for Disease Control Bacterial Pneumonia. You can search other diseases as well.

Center for Disease Control Web Site on Anthrax Concerned about anthrax? Read more about it here.

Want to research the medications you are taking?

Drug Infonet Another resource to research information on medications.

American Accreditation HealthCare Commission "Health information sites have received a nod of approval from the American Accreditation HealthCare Commission/URAC. Sites that passed muster had to satisfy numerous requirements, from guaranteeing user privacy, to disclosing corporate sponsorship, to ensuring that site content had been reviewed by licensed doctors."

BMJ The general medical journal website Produced by the BMJ Publishing Group of the BMA, assisted by Stanford University's HighWire Press

Clinical Trials & Research Projects
Interested in participating in a research project related to your medical condition or know someone who may want to be in on a study? Check out these sites.

Fibromyalgia / Chronic Pain Research Program "This site is provided to keep you up to date on developments in our work and research, and to be a center for sharing information with those interested in participating. This site is also meant to be informative for anybody dealing with chronic pain conditions, especially FMS and chronic myofascial pain."

Fibromyalgia / Chronic Pain Research Program Site also contains other news in addition to the research.

Clinical Trial Finder

Clinical Trials.gov



InteliHealth "mission is to empower people with trusted solutions for healthier lives, through its exclusive relationships with Harvard Medical School and the University of Pennsylvania School of Dental Medicine. Through InteliHealth, Aetna seeks to educate the public with trusted health information so that health consumers, in partnership with their health care professionals, take an active role in health care decisions."

National Dysautonomia Research Foundation Disorders of the autonomic nervous system information and support.

Center For Drug Evaluation & Research Latest information on new drugs & recently identified risks. Link to search information on any drug. Explains why some prescription meds change to over-the-counter drugs.


National Organization for Rare Disorders "NORD is the only organization of its kind--a unique federation of more than 140 not-for-profit voluntary health organizations serving people with rare disorders and disabilities."


Other Immune Diseases
Myasthenia gravis " neuromuscular autoimmune disease that causes a weakening of the voluntary muscles - that is, the muscles that we can control such as those in our legs and arms."

MYASTHENIA GRAVIS LINKS Lots of links to sites on Myasthenia Gravis.

Types of Myasthenia Gravis That Involve an Autoimmune Response Site includes several types including "Adult-Onset Myasthenia Gravis:
This form of myasthenia gravis usually begins in the third decade of life for women, and the fifth decade for men. This form carries with it all of the symptoms that are normally found in patients with myasthenia gravis. The disease will generally reach its greatest severity within the first three years after onset. Myasthenia gravis may coexist with other autoimmune diseases, and thyroid disease may heighten the myasthenic signs and symptoms."

The dizzy patient Presence of vertigo points to vestibular cause Problems with dizziness? "This article focuses on six vestibular causes of dizziness, all of which have vertigo as the predominant symptom: benign positional vertigo, acute unilateral vestibulopathy, chronic bilateral vestibulopathy, Meniere's disease, migraine, and vertebrobasilar insufficiency."

What Is Rosacea? "Rosacea (pronounced "roh-ZAY-sha") is a chronic, relapsing and potentially life-disruptive disorder of the facial skin that affects an estimated 14 million Americans. Many have observed that it typically begins any time after age 30 as a redness on the cheeks, nose, chin or forehead that may come and go. In some cases, rosacea may also occur on the neck, chest, scalp or ears. Over time, the redness becomes ruddier and more persistent, and visible blood vessels may appear. Left untreated, bumps and pimples often develop, and in severe cases the nose may grow swollen and bumpy from excess tissue. This is the condition, called rhinophyma (pronounced "rhi-no-FY-muh"), that gave the late comedian W.C. Fields his trademark bulbous nose. In many rosacea patients, the eyes are also affected, feeling irritated and appearing watery or bloodshot."

Pituitary Tumors: Frequently Asked Questions About Pituitary Tumors "Pituitary tumors are common. In autopsy studies of patients who did not have known pituitary disease, as many as 26% had a small tumor (adenoma) in the gland. Molecular biology studies have shown that a change in the DNA of pituitary cells can cause unregulated growth of a particular cell type resulting in a pituitary tumor. There are no known environmental causes. An uncommon type of pituitary tumor is inherited, this is called Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia, Type I. In this situation, there is usually a family history of endocrine tumors, most commonly a parathyroid tumor, a pituitary tumor and less commonly, a tumor of the pancreas. This occurs in less than 4% of patients with a pituitary tumor."

Anterior Lobe Disorders HYPOSECRETION OF ANTERIOR PITUITARY HORMONES "Hyposecretion may be generalized (hypopituitarism) or caused by the selective loss of one or more pituitary hormones." Includes info on pituitary tumors.

Endocrine Diseases Long list of links to various sites on endocrine diseases.

ophthalmoplegic migraine Another cause of eye pain. "Ophthalmoplegic migraine is a rare form of migraine headache that is felt around the eye. It is often connected with weakness of the muscles around the eye.
What is going on in the body?
An ophthalmoplegic migraine causes severe headache. It also may affect the person's vision. The process that causes this type of migraine is not well understood. One possible cause is inflammation of the blood vessels around the eye. Allergic reactions are another possible cause."

Medical Solutions Looking for medical equipment such as PULSE OXIMETERS? I saved this site simply because of the problems my husband was having with his lungs but he is ok now.

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